Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation ! Even today, women have to face discrimination in our society. It is the truth, Whether as much as we claim to be civilized and modern, But our society is still afraid of women’s empowerment. The number of women at the major pivotal place of the world is negligible. Only 10 percent women hold senior managers posts in the top 500 companies on the international level. The same situation is also in the political field, how many countries are in the world where women are the highest political office holder? Actually, the less guy who is willing to give equal status to women. People cleverly keep continuing discrimination against women in some form. Leave the Common man, the personal life of feminist activists, writers and thinkers also do not present encouraging examples.
Today men and women are working side by side, but gender discrimination still exists. The promotion of women in the job is stopped when they are to marry. Women have to face sexual politics also at the workplace. Leave the matter of ordinary women, the candidate of the most powerful post of the most powerful country Hillary Clinton was also facing difficulties during the presidential election. Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
According to a report by the United Nations in almost every country of the world, women have to face discrimination. Yet it is happening, when all 185 member states of the United Nation promised that they would eliminate all laws by 2005 who discriminate against women.
What is discrimination?
In the favor or against of any person or thing instead of merit or demerit distinguish on the basis of being a member of any class, category or group is called discrimination. In simple words, we can say that abandon the idea of justice and law gives preference or sympathy or support to one party is called discrimination. Often in discrimination, a person deprives of opportunities, places, rights, etc. only on the basis of his class. Discriminatory traditions, policies, laws, and rituals are in many societies, countries, and institutions. In Fanatical religious societies get to see much of it.Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
Most usable ways, type and places of discrimination of women
- By speaking
- By behavior
- Lack of opportunities
- Religious practices
- Social practice and customs
- Economic dependency
- Dominance-oriented approach
- Ethical bond
- By speaking- speaking is The most commonly used and cruel method. Through which we just do not do Cruelty but also compel the women to feel they are how weak. Our society does discriminatory act every day through colloquial style and used terminology. Our society is so insensitive that they do not seem decorous to look at the serious offense a moment and think about this. The Even woman herself goes to accept it as an integral part of the daily life. It is so simple to accept and they do not think anything strange about it. This type of problems get to see at most in the developing and religion-fearing society such as Asian, Indian and Muslim societies. Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
- By behavior- Our society has developed the practices of such culture and traditions through which always do discrimination against in men and women. We have decided the man and woman’s dress will what, How will they behave? etc.
- Lack of opportunities- The women are not inferior to men in any way on the merit, but also they have proven herself superior in many places. The best way to discrimination against women in society get to see a reduction in the availability of opportunities for them, to be limited the areas for them. To be given preferences to male over their age, physical and mental capacity etc. Where has been provided the opportunity to the women, they have proved thyself right.
- Religious ritual- Priority is given to men in religious rituals. The second position has been provided to the women in almost every religion’s ritual. In Hindu religion, neither woman could participate in the funeral, nor can the shradh, nor can major Yagna without her husband. Here the concept is ‘without Son liberation from hell is not possible’. More or less most of all religions are the same situation. The condition of women in Muslim society is even more pathetic.
- Social practice and customs- Traditionally in the society, the women are considered as the weaker class. they are considered as a property of the male. Both at home and outside the home, they are exploited, humiliated, attacked, and suffered from discrimination. Our society is based on the patriarchal system, celebrates the joy at the birth of a son and daughter’s birth consider as a burden. Its serious form gets to see in Indian and Asian societies. Child marriage, Shati practice, the purdah system, dowry, triple divorce, polygamy, and such other practices are the root factors of exploitation, discrimination, and cruelty of women. Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
- Emotional- When speaking of exploitation or discrimination against women, most writers and thinkers keep focused on economic and social aspects. While the emotional aspect can also be a way of discrimination against the women. When their emotions hurt by words or behavior. It should be called exploitation or Discrimination against women. For example, taunts on women, to make fun of their beauty, joked about their personal things such as caste, sex, or age, etc. or to neglect her etc. are many ways, which can consider as the discrimination against women emotionally.
- Mental- Our society has developed the behavior of such culture and traditions through which give education and training to the women at the level of the mind for becoming only a tool of patriarchal society. Thereby they could not challenge the authority of the men. Our society has evolved the every possible way to ensure the slavery of women.
- Economic dependency- The women have been kept financially weak thereby they remain weaker than men. Because when they become financially strong then their self-sufficiency will grow up and the male will loose grip on them. That is the reason that our society encourages men in the economic sector while discourages the working women in this field. It is acceptable for women to work in developed countries. The working women have to face very problems in the job in the Indian, Asian, and Arab societies.
- Dominance-oriented approach- The Men have been wanted to subjugate women under their control always. The male has been wanted to be the master of her by considering as property. The approach by which establishing ownership by controlling the women that approach is called the dominance-oriented approach. as long the approach will continue till then the discrimination of women in society will continue. It is the demands of time for women in this era of Global challenges that to be professional, to get equal opportunity in economic competitiveness. But the Dominance-oriented approach of patriarchal society is not ready to give freedom to the woman.
- Ethical constraints – the fetters of many types of ethical constraints are put on the women. While men have more freedom than women. For example, in Muslim societies, the practice of polygamy and triple talaq. Purdah system is compulsory for the woman. the women have to cover the entire body, even in the hottest summer day. there are numerous examples of which clearly visible that highly moral obligations are imposed on women. While the man has excessive freedom.
Problems of the women due to discrimination
today, there is the intense expansion of Feminism and their protection movement’s impact in the world. Despite this, the decision of the fate of women is still in the hands of their husband and the family. They are not independent in their behavior, marriage, family, sex relation and other things. However, The woman does work efficiently, nevertheless, the men do not miss the opportunity to let her down. Due to this Discrimination and mindset of exploitation, the women have to face cruelty, violence, sexual violence, physical and psychological abuse, health-related problems, economic deprivation, hurting self-esteem, etc. difficulties. Violence against women is being done in every corner of the world, whether it is the developing or developed country, or so-called civilized and prosperous nation. All are partners in torture and discrimination against women. Behind of the not given equal opportunities of education to the women, there is the conspiracy of society to keep them illiterate, then they will be a slave.Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
As our world is moving forward, As he is getting free from its ancient customs. Even if the speed is lower, but the reformist effort is continuing. For this reason, after the birth of the United Nations in 1945, human rights declaration came in 1948. Since then, the UN continues to make progress in efforts to ensure human rights. Under this effort on the problems of women, our World’s established governments show the seriousness and have been taken steps to ensure human rights of women. November 25 is celebrated as an International Day for “elimination of violence against women’. in 1999 the United Nations General Assembly has recognized the date as “elimination of violence against women” day that people could create awareness about women’s rights. Similarly, CEDAW was adopted by the United Nations so that all discrimination against women can be eliminated.
United Nations Conventions for Women
- Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women.
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- International Convention on Civil and Political Rights
- International Convention on Social, Economic, and Cultural Rights
- Committee against Torture
- Conventions against Torture
What is “CEDAW”
“CEDAW”was accepted by the UN general assembly on 18 December 1979. It came in effects on 3 September 1981 after rectification by 20 countries. 100 countries were accepted it within 10 years till 1989. A body was established by the United Nations Commission in 1946, which work was promoted women’s right and keep an eye on their status. As a consequence of 30 years of continues hard working, the great work of this body could take birth as a convention. The Convention has the very important position between the several international human rights treaties. This Convention attracts to the mankind’s attention to concerns of woman’s and the violation of their rights. The main goal of this Convention is to reinstate faith in the right to equality between men and women, human dignity, its value, and the fundamental rights of human beings. Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
The key provision of “CEDAW“
The structure of the Convention in 6 parts and the total Article is 30.Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
- Part I (Art-1 to 6)– This part is focused on the dismantling of the discrimination, the sex dogma , and sex trafficking.
- Part II (Art 7to 9)- This part of the convention presents a framework of rights in the political, public sector, representation, and terms of nationality for women.
- Part III (Art 10 to 14)– This part is focused on social and economic राइट्स of the woman, such as education, employment, health, etc. It is especially focused on the protection of rural women.
- Part IV (Art 15 & 16)- Part fourth of the convention provides protection to the right to equality in the eyes of the law in Marriage and family life.
- Part V (Art 17 to 22)- Made the rule in respect of the reporting process of States Parties as well as has formed the committee who take responsibility to ensure the elimination of discrimination against women.
- Part VI (Art 23 to 30)- In this part of the Convention has been mentioned about what will impact it on other treaties and what will impact on the state parties and its administration.
Art 1 – Discrimination against women is defined In this Article.
Art 2- provision has been made under this article the approver parties will ensure that gender equality in their domestic law will be established and discriminatory provisions in their laws to be repealed. The tribunal should be established for women. Discrimination against them should be abolished and taken appropriate steps to ensure their safety.
Art 3- political, social, and cultural rights on the basis of gender equality should be guaranteed.
Art 4- Special protection for motherhood will not be enumerated under discrimination.
Art 5- The equal responsibility of woman and men should be determined or recognized in raising children.
Art 6- State party will take appropriate measures to eradicate all forms of prostitution, trafficking of women, and exploitation.
Art 7– Guarantee of the right to equality should be ensured to participate voting and government in social and political life as well as non-governmental organizations and associations should also be granted the guarantee of the right to equality.
Art 8- To provide a guarantee to represent his government at the international level and providing opportunities for work in international organizations.
Art 9– State parties will bind to provide equal rights to women like men for obtaining, modify, and maintain the nationality of thyself and their children.
Art 10– Female students will get equal opportunities for education also and co-educational will be promoted. Sports, scholarships, and grants will be given to promote women.
Art 11- under this Article the rights have been granted to women for equal pay for equal work, the right to social security, the right to leisure and maternity leave. Dismissal is prohibited on the basis of Maternity, pregnancy or marriage.
Art 12- State parties have an obligation that all forms of discrimination related to women in the health sector ought to be eliminated. The responsibility has been entrusted to the State party to take appropriate measures relating to Women’s safety as well as family planning.
Art 13- the right to equality must be guaranteed to the women in economic and social life, particularly in the area of family benefits, bank, loan, mortgage, financial loans, sports, recreational activities.
Art 14- This article provides special protection to rural women and their problems. Under this article, provision of an obligation on the State parties must be taken the necessary steps to ensure the rights of the women to Participation in development programs, participate in all community activities, use of health care facilities, access to agricultural credit etc.
Art 15- the state parties will be provided the right to equality before the law, traveling and right of residence to the women equal to men.
Art 16– Under this article cultural rights has provided to the elimination of discrimination in all matters relating to marriage and family, the right to choose the husband, the right to choose the family name, the right to decide the number of children, etc.
Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation
Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation | There are many reasons on the basis of which CEDAW can be criticized. For example, this Convention is a powerless convention, which has nither powers of punishment nor any harmony between states themselves. The biggest drawback of the Convention is that this Convention refers to the rules for the abolition of discrimination, but the convention is silent on the matter on a binding provision of the appointment of a woman as a member.
Article 17 of the Convention stated that the Committee member would be of high moral caliber. But neither it was told that what would be the standards of ‘High Moral’ nor has defined the ‘High Moral’ term.
Another drawback of this convention is that the convention has not provided any binding provision for those countries where either woman has not any rights or has limited rights. So it’s fair to say that it is not as effective as the Convention was expected at the time of its formation. Protection of women’s rights under the United Nation